Middle East 1930 - 1947
After the Great War, the United Kingdom maintained strategic
interests in the Mediterranean and Middle East. The main reason for
this was to provide a safe sea and air route between the U.K. and
India, but control of oil supplies and national interests were also
factors in this policy.
Gibraltar is a British possession in the Western Mediterranean. It had a Governor-General, army garrison and Royal Navy dockyard. Malta was a British colony in the central Mediterranean with a Governor-General, army garrison and significant Royal Navy presence.
Egypt was an interesting situation, in that the United Kingdom maintained a significant measure of control of what was, in theory, an independent country. Indeed, Egypt housed the largest British Army presence outside the United Kingdom and India. The main reason for this was the presence of the Suez Canal, the key artery that facilitated maritime access between the U.K., India, and the Far East.
Another country in which the U.K. faced policing a troubled state was Palestine. The neighbouring country of Trans-Jordan was also a British Protectorate, but was relatively stable. The problem with Palestine was (and still is) the competing demands between the Arab and Jewish populations, and their claims on the same areas of land. Palestine had become a British Protectorate after the First World War, as had Trans-Jordan; both countries being carved out of the former Ottoman Empire. An upsurge in inter-communal violence in 1936, 1937 and 1938, in part sparked by the increased immigration resulting from the developing persecution of the Jewish people by the Nazis, necessitated an enhanced military presence just prior to the outbreak of the Second World War.
The outbreak of the Second World War, in itself, did not change the military situation significantly in the Mediterranean, but it was the decision of Italy to declare war in June 1940 that brought this part of the world into the war. In addition, the collapse of France, and the formation of Vichy France, changed the balance of power in the Mediterranean, as the U.K. had relied on French military and political support in the region. This led to the difficult decisions to bombard and sink the French fleet at their bases.
During the Second World War, most of the Mediterranean became embroiled in conflict. In 1940 the British and her Allies fought with the Italians in Libya, capturing over half the country. Then Germany became involved, leading to the campaigns in Greece and then Crete in 1941, Syria in the same year, the intense bombing of Malta, and the arrival of the Afrika Korps in Libya. Steadily the Allied forces were built up in the theatre, and even the loss of some British and Australian formations to the Far East when Japan entered the war, did not stop this trend.
By October 1942, over three years after the start of the war, the Allies had gained a degree of maritime and air superiority over the Axis forces, leading to a massive build-up of the 8 Army with men and modern materiel. The defeat of the Axis forces at the second battle of El Alamein (which was still a close run thing) was the beginning of the end of the war in this region.
The campaigns went on in Tunisia and Sicily, forcing Italy to surrender in September 1943. The Allies continued the long slog up that country, which continued until April 1945. In the Aegean sea, there was a failed attempt by the British to regain the Italian islands of Rhodes, Kos and Leros in September 1943, leading to defeat and the surrender of a couple of thousand British soldiers. The German withdrawal from Greece in late 1944 led to civil war in that country, which drew in several thousand British soldiers which remained there until 1952.
The end of the Second World War did not mean the end of conflict in the region. In 1946, Palestine erupted in civil war, which resulted in the creation of the state of Israel. In Egypt, there were uprisings that forced the British to withdraw to the Canal Zone in 1948, eventually leading to the Suez War in 1956.
British Troops in Egypt 1930 - 45
British Troops in Egypt (BTE) was a pre-war Command. The first British Troops came to Egypt in 1882 to suppress a nationalist military uprising against the Turkish Sultan. The British Troops remained throughout The Great War. In 1922, Egypt gained independence, but British Forces remained to defend the Suez Canal. ...view details
Malta 1930 - 1945
Malta is an island in the central Mediterranean. Under the Treaty of Paris, which was signed in 1814, Malta became part of the British Empire. Its strategic position in the middle of the Mediterranean halfway between Gibraltar and Egypt made it an ideal naval base for the Royal Navy. The ...view details
Gibraltar 1930 - 47
Gibraltar (otherwise known to many servicemen as ‘The Rock’) was, and still is, a British overseas territory at the southern coast of Spain at the entrance to the Straits of Gibraltar, the gateway to the Mediterranean Sea. It was captured by the Royal Marines in 1704, and then ceded to ...view details
Palestine and Trans-jordan 1930-1947
Prior to The Great War, Palestine and Trans-Jordan were part of the Ottoman Empire. With the end of that war, and Turkey’s defeat, the Empire was broken up. The United Kingdom assumed responsibility for the Mandate for Palestine and Trans-Jordon on 29 September 1923. Palestine Command was formed on 1 ...view details
Western Desert 1940 - 1943 Overview and Higher Formations
Before the Second World War commenced in September 1939, the only British military presence in North Africa was the large military garrison in Egypt. Libya was an Italian colony; with Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco all being French colonies. The entry of Italy into the Second World War in June 1940 ...view details